Electric Motor


To make a decision on the electric motor several factors came into play. Those factors being dimensions, performance, and the possibility of regenerative braking. In the past, DC Motors were common in variable speed applications. With recent advances in electronics, AC motors and controllers have allowed for variable speed applications that now make them a viable candidate for electrically driven vehicles.

AC Motors and controllers usually have a higher efficiency over a larger operating range. At low speeds the efficiencies of the AC Motors is greater than that of the DC Motor. At low torques that might represent highway driving, the AC system has a much higher efficiency.

The AC-150 drive system that AC Propulsion manufactures gives high performance and rapid convenient charging capabilities that makes ideal for electric vehicle applications. The system delivers up to 150 kW (200hp) motor output, yet maximizes vehicle operating range with high efficiency over a broad operating range and comprehensive energy recovery through regenerative braking. Some of the characteristics of the AC-150 are:

Output 200hp @ 6000-12000 rpm
at motor shaft 165ft-lb @ 0-5000 rpm
Efficiency 91% peak efficiency
Battery to shaft 86% at road load
Charger 200 to 20,000 watt
Unity PF, GFI compatible Reductive

180 lb. Total weight including cooling system


  • Advanced Drive Control Circuitry.
Pulse-width-modulated, voltage fed, IGBT
  • "Glass Smooth" Torque under all load and speed conditions.
Inverted with current mode, sine-modulated.
  • Driver adjustable regeneration.

13.5V power supply regeneration capability. Controls; battery charging circuitry.

  • Traction control.
Automatic power limiter to prevent wheel spin.
  • Variable speed cooling fans, (motor and PEU box).
Automatically adjusts fan speed according to cooling requirements to minimize parasitic losses.


Integrated Reductive Charger
Dimensions:Standard 30.2"x15.2"x8.2"

Dimensions:Metric 767mm x 386mm x 208mm

  • Charge from any power source between 100 and 240 VAC.
  • Charge rate controllable from 200W up to 20kW(with 240V line).
Total weight: 70lb, 32kg (incl. blower).
  • Unity power factor, sine wave current Draw.
Cooling: Forced-air with Power Wast Management (PWM) control.
  • GFI outlet compatible
Power connectors: Aircraft-style circular.
  • Automatic mode switching (recharge mode activated when charge power is connected).
Control connectors: Miniature "D"
  • Compatible with delayed charging and rate control (utility interface).
Control inputs: Ground-referenced signals
Key switch, accelerator pedal, regenerative braking.
Sensitivity, forward, neutral, and reverse;
LED status indicators.
Instrumentation outputs: Ground referenced signals outputs for battery voltage, battery current, motor temperature, electronics temperature, line voltage, line current, and LED status indicators
Power supply current: 100A @ 13.5V


Design Safety MOTOR
  • No exposed high voltage surfaces.
Four-pole induction, high frequency design.
  • All control wiring is grounded, 12V or less.
Inverter-controlled magnetic flux.
  • Protection against over-current, over-voltage and over-heating conditions.
Dimensions:Standard 12"dia. X 15"long
  • Battery ground floats with respect to vehicle chassis.
Dimensions:Metric 305mm dia. x 381mm long
  • Double electric insulated motor.
Total weight: 110lb, 50kg (incl. blower).
  • Zero motor back-EMF when excitation is removed.
Maximum rpm: 12,000
  • Interlocks prevent accidental operations.
Insulation: Class H, double-insulated.
Cooling: Forced-air with PWM control.
Sensors: Winding temperature, tachometer.



Voltage 336V nominal

240V min, 420 V max
Current 520A max (drive)
200A max (regeneration)
Torque 165 ft-lb. max, 0-5000 rpm (drive)
85 ft-lb. max (regeneration)
Power 200 hp max 6000-12000 rpm
70 hp continuous
Efficiency 91% peak (40 hp, 8500 rpm)
86% road load (10 hp, 8500 rpm)
>90% recharge (240V line, 10 kW)

AC Propulsion has an emission-monitoring device that has been used to confirm the real world emission reduction  benefits of HEVs. The laptop computer-based system is capable of real –time readouts of emissions in grams-per-mile. The AC-150's control techniques allow the power electronics to be reconfigured as a high-rate reductive battery charger. By allowing safe charging from 110 to 240 V outlets at rates as high as 20 kW, the reductive charger reduces infrastructure installation requirements and costs.

Based on performance and weight the AC-Propulsion Motor has been chosen for the HEV projects. In addition to the fact, this motor and controller is an efficient choice for integration into the future needs of our vehicle. These parameters as well as the performance-to-weight ratio are by far superior to any other electric motor combination.


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HEV Team
Department of Mechanical Engineering
San Diego State University
5500 Campanile Dr.
San Diego, CA 92182-1323
Fax: (619) 594-3599
E-mail: hev@kahuna.sdsu.edu